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فرع المقالات والمواضيع الانجليزية قسم نجمع فيه المقالاتوالمواضيع و التعابير المتنوعة المكتوبة باللغة الإنجليزية والتي تفيد الجميع في دراستهم وحياتهم

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قديم 10-18-2009, 10:01 PM
الصورة الرمزية abdou-E.P.S
abdou-E.P.S

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abdou-E.P.S غير متواجد حالياً
 
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35 Nobel Peace Prize ( جائز نوبل للسلام ) بحث : تعريف + الحاصلين عليها




Nobel Peace Prize
( جائز نوبل للسلام )
بحث تعريف + الفائزين عليها







What is the Nobel Prize?


The Nobel Prize is the brainchild of Alfred Nobel, a Swedish chemist who was best known in his lifetime for his invention of dynamite. Upon his death in 1896, a reading of his will revealed stipulations that over 90% of his estate should be used to establish prizes in five categories: physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, and peace.

Many wonder why Nobel established the Nobel Prize. It has often been assumed that he sought to make restitution for creating dynamite.


Nobel did catch a glimpse of a French obituary for himself when his brother died and a French newspaper thought Nobel had died. Among other colorful terms, the newspapers called Alfred Nobel a “merchant of death.” Thus the restitution to reward the positive aspects of the world remains the popular theory on the establishment of the Nobel Prize.

Alfred Nobel died in 1896. The first Nobel Prize was awarded in 1901.


Nobel stipulated exactly how the prizes should be determined, and what bodies should be responsible for selecting and awarding prizes.


According to Nobel’s will, the Swedish Academy of Science was to award a yearly Nobel Prize in Physics and Chemistry. The Caroline Institute at Stockholm would award the Nobel Prize for medicine. The Academy of Stockholm would determine the Nobel Prize for literature. Five members selected by the Norwegian government select the recipient of the annual Peace Prize. The Peace Prize is awarded in Oslo, Norway, while the other Nobel Prizes are awarded in Stockholm, Sweden. Each award was to be given without regard to nationality, and was meant to represent the best and brightest contributors to each field.

Some confusion exists over a sixth category, the Nobel Prize in Economics. This is not technically a Nobel Prize because it was not listed in Nobel’s will, and it does use Nobel’s foundation to award funds. This award was established in 1969 and is awarded by the Swedish Academy of Sciences. Monies awarded come from the Bank of Sweden.

Typically the Nobel Prize means one wins a medal, international recognition, and a sum of money for ongoing work in one’s field. Often the money is not greatly important since people receiving the award tend to be at the end of their careers. Currently, those receiving the Prize may receive a little over one million US dollars (USD).


Since the Prize’s establishment, over 750 awards have been given. The Nobel Prize tends not to be awarded posthumously, which has met with some controversy. Some of the recipients of the award have also been criticized. For example, Mahatma Gandhi never won the Nobel Peace Prize despite his sterling efforts to promote non-violent protests and fair government in India .


What is the Nobel Peace Prize?



The Nobel Peace Prize is an award presented to either an individual or an organization in accordance with Alfred Nobel’s living will. Alfred Nobel, creator of the five Nobel Prizes, was a Swedish inventor and industrialist. He disposed the Nobel Peace Prize in his will to be awarded to “the person who shall have done the most or the best work for fraternity between the nations, for the abolition or reduction of standing armies and for the holding and promotion of peace congresses." The Nobel Peace Prize differs from the Nobel Prizes in literature, physics, chemistry, and medicine or physiology in that it may be presented not only to individuals, but also to organizations that are actively engaged in a process or effort that intends to promote world peace. The prize can be awarded for current efforts, rather than for having accomplished a goal or resolved an issue.

Having been awarded since 1901, the Nobel Peace Prize is considered a very astute recognition, but some past nominees and recipients have created controversy. Adolf Hitler was nominated in 1939, but the nomination was retracted. Other nominees include Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, and Yasser Arafat. Arafat received the Nobel Peace Prize, as did Henry Kissinger and Mikhail Gorbachev. Due to the practice of awarding the Nobel Peace Prize based on a work in progress, it stands to reason that some recipients may seem like poor choices in hindsight; however, many recipients have been life-long promoters of peace and human rights, such as Dr. Martin Luther King, Mother Theresa, and the Dalai Lama


An individual or organization may be nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by any qualifying individual, including former recipients, university professors, international leaders, and members of national assemblies. The list of nominees is kept private each year, and though a group or individual may later be referred to as a Nobel Peace Prize nominee, this title bears no official merit. Nominees and recipients of the Nobel Peace Prize between 1901 and 1951 are currently compiled into a database. There are those who publicly criticize the Nobel Peace Prize as being politically slanted to the left and failing to recognize true merit, but even with past controversy, the Nobel Peace Prize continues to be an astute recognition that few would decline to accept.


التعديل الأخير تم بواسطة abdou-E.P.S ; 10-18-2009 الساعة 10:33 PM
رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-18-2009, 10:21 PM   #2
abdou-E.P.S

مشـــرف


الصورة الرمزية abdou-E.P.S
 
تاريخ التسجيل: Jul 2009
رقم العضوية : 3692
الدولة: جامعة الدول العربية
العمر: 30
المشاركات: 2,910
معدل تقييم المستوى: 50
abdou-E.P.S مبدع ومميز abdou-E.P.S مبدع ومميز abdou-E.P.S مبدع ومميز abdou-E.P.S مبدع ومميز abdou-E.P.S مبدع ومميز abdou-E.P.S مبدع ومميز abdou-E.P.S مبدع ومميز abdou-E.P.S مبدع ومميز
35 List of Nobel Peace Prize Winners (1901-2009)


List of Nobel Peace Prize Winners (1901-2009)



2009 Barack Obama
2008 Martti Ahtisaari
2007 Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr.
2006 Muhammad Yunus
2005 Mohamed Elbaradei + International Atomic Energy Agency
2004 Wangari Maathai
2003 Shirin Ebadi
2002 Jimmy Carter
2001 United Nations, Kofi Annan
2000 Kim Dae-jung
1999 Médecins Sans Frontières
1998 John Hume, David Trimble
1997 International Campaign to Ban Landmines, Jody Williams
1996 Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo, José Ramos-Horta
1995 Joseph Rotblat, Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs
1994 Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres, Yitzhak Rabin
1993 Nelson Mandela, F.W. de Klerk
1992 Rigoberta Menchú Tum
1991 Aung San Suu Kyi
1990 Mikhail Gorbachev
1989 The 14th Dalai Lama
1988 United Nations Peacekeeping Forces
1987 Oscar Arias Sánchez
1986 Elie Wiesel
1985 International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War
1984 Desmond Tutu
1983 Lech Walesa
1982 Alva Myrdal, Alfonso García Robles
1981 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1980 Adolfo Pérez Esquivel
1979 Mother Teresa
1978 Anwar al-Sadat, Menachem Begin
1977 Amnesty International
1976 Betty Williams, Mairead Corrigan
1975 Andrei Sakharov
1974 Seán MacBride, Eisaku Sato
1973 Henry Kissinger, Le Duc Tho
1972 No Award
1971 Willy Brandt
1970 Norman Borlaug
1969 International Labour Organization
1968 René Cassin
1967-66 No Award
1965 United Nations Children's Fund
1964 Martin Luther King
1963 International Committee of the Red Cross, League of Red Cross Societies
1962 Linus Pauling
1961 Dag Hammarskjöld
1960 Albert Lutuli
1959 Philip Noel-Baker
1958 Georges Pire
1957 Lester Bowles Pearson
1956 Prize money to Special Fund
1955 "
1954 Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
1953 George C. Marshall
1952 Albert Schweitzer
1951 Léon Jouhaux
1950 Ralph Bunche
1949 Lord Boyd Orr
1948 No Award
1947 Friends Service Council, American Friends Service Committee
1946 Emily Greene Balch, John R. Mott
1945 Cordell Hull
1944 International Committee of the Red Cross
1939-1943 No Award
1938 Nansen International Office for Refugees
1937 Robert Cecil
1936 Carlos Saavedra Lamas
1935 Carl von Ossietzky
1934 Arthur Henderson
1933 Sir Norman Angell
1932 No Award
1931 Jane Addams, Nicholas Murray Butler
1930 Nathan Söderblom
1929 Frank B. Kellogg
1928 No Award
1927 Ferdinand Buisson, Ludwig Quidde
1926 Aristide Briand, Gustav Stresemann
1925 Sir Austen Chamberlain, Charles G. Dawes
1924 -23 No Award
1922 Fridtjof Nansen
1921 Hjalmar Branting, Christian Lange
1920 Léon Bourgeois
1919 Woodrow Wilson
1918 No Award
1917 International Committee of the Red Cross
1916-1913 No Award
1913 Henri La Fontaine
1912 Elihu Root
1911 Tobias Asser, Alfred Fried
1910 Permanent International Peace Bureau
1909 Auguste Beernaert, Paul Henri d'Estournelles de Constant
1908 Klas Pontus Arnoldson, Fredrik Bajer
1907 Ernesto Teodoro Moneta, Louis Renault
1906 Theodore Roosevelt
1905 Bertha von Suttner
1904 Institute of International Law
1903 Randal Cremer
1902 Élie Ducommun, Albert Gobat
1901 Henry Dunant, Frédéric Passy
abdou-E.P.S غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-18-2009, 10:54 PM   #3
تلميذة


الصورة الرمزية تلميذة
 
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تلميذة نشط تلميذة نشط تلميذة نشط
افتراضي رد: 35 Nobel Peace Prize ( جائز نوبل للسلام ) بحث : تعريف + الحاصلين عليها

مشكوووووور والله يعطيك الف عافيه

التوقيع
لو الدنيا صارت دمار ... لو جبل علي انهار... و لو صلبوني على الأشجار ... و لوحرقوني بالنار ... و لو عذبوني طوال النهار ... و لو مزقوا جسدي بالمنشار ...
ولوأجبروني على الانتحار ... أقولو لهم كلمة باختصار ... و أنطقها بعزة و
افتخار ... و أرددها ...بتكرار ...واصرار ... جزائري بكل افتخار.
تلميذة غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-19-2009, 10:31 AM   #4
مؤمنه


الصورة الرمزية مؤمنه
 
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مؤمنه نشاطه متزايد مؤمنه نشاطه متزايد مؤمنه نشاطه متزايد مؤمنه نشاطه متزايد مؤمنه نشاطه متزايد مؤمنه نشاطه متزايد
افتراضي رد: Nobel Peace Prize ( جائز نوبل للسلام ) بحث : تعريف + الحاصلين عليها

شكرا اخي عبدو على هذه المعلومات خاصه بجائزة نوبل خاصة أنك ارفقتها بالشخصيات التي حازت عليه
لك مني أحلى تقييم بوركت
مؤمنه غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-23-2010, 08:42 PM   #5
abdou-E.P.S

مشـــرف


الصورة الرمزية abdou-E.P.S
 
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افتراضي

العفو وشكرا لمروركم العطر
abdou-E.P.S غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-26-2010, 12:37 PM   #6
amina abbes

مرشحين للعضوية

اضغط هنا لتعديل الصورة الرمزية
 
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amina abbes is an unknown quantity at this point
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شكراا و جزاك الله خيرااا
amina abbes غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
قديم 10-26-2010, 01:01 PM   #7
رقية true friend


الصورة الرمزية رقية true friend
 
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رقية true friend is an unknown quantity at this point
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رقية true friend غير متواجد حالياً   رد مع اقتباس
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